Males have small territories that are usually occupied for life. Groups of adult females, averaging 3 individuals, are not permanently associated with any one male, but wander from one territory to another. There are also large herds containing the young animals of both sexes. A territorial male almost always accompanies a herd, initiating and leading their movements, and keeping the members together. He approaches any that stray and runs flat out to head off escapees. Yearlings of both sexes voluntarily leave the herd during or following the calving season and join the large bachelor herds. Feeding is usually in the morning and afternoon, with resting during the middle of the day. The black-backed jackal is the only predator that coexists with the species, apart from the leopard in some reserves. This species was nearly exterminated by 1830, but several herds have been maintained on government and private preserves, and over 1,500 individuals now exist.